Online
55537 days on xHamster
87614M profile views
25752K subscribers
93315 comments left

Sedating newborns

antihistamines cross the blood-brain barrier, and in usual doses, they potentially cause sedation and impair cognitive function and psychomotor performance.

These medications, some of which have been in use for more than 6 decades, have never been optimally investigated.

Second-generation H antihistamines such as cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, and loratadine cross the blood-brain barrier to a significantly smaller extent than their predecessors.

The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these medications have been extensively studied.

They are therefore the HHistamine, a natural body constituent, is synthesized from L-histidine exclusively by histidine decarboxylase, an enzyme expressed in central nervous system (CNS) neurons, gastric mucosa parietal cells, mast cells, basophils, and other cells throughout the body.

Histamine plays a major role in human health, exerting its diverse effects through 4 or more types of receptors (Table 1).

Through the H receptor, histamine is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, hematopoiesis, embryonic development, regeneration, and wound healing.

It is a neurotransmitter, has anticonvulsant activity, and contributes to regulation of the sleep-waking cycle, energy and endocrine homeostasis, cognition and memory [↑ Pruritus, pain, vasodilation, vascular permeability, hypotension; flushing, headache, tachycardia, bronchoconstriction, stimulation of airway vagal afferent nerves and cough receptors; ↓ atrioventricular node conduction time↑ Release of histamine and other mediators; ↑ cellular adhesion molecule expression and chemotaxis of eosinophils and neutrophils; ↑ antigen-presenting cell capacity, costimulatory activity on B cells; ↑ cellular immunity (Th1), ↑ autoimmunity; ↓ humoral immunity and Ig E production↑ Eosinophil and neutrophil chemotaxis;↓ IL-12 by dendritic cells; ↑ IL-10 and development of Th2 or tolerance-inducing dendritic cells; ↑ humoral immunity;↓ cellular immunity; suppresses Th2 cells and cytokines; indirect role in allergy, autoimmunity, malignancy, graft rejection receptor, it increases antigen-presenting cell capacity, increases release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils, up-regulates cellular adhesion molecule expression and chemotaxis of eosinophils and neutrophils, up-regulates Th1 priming and Th1 cell proliferation and interferon- receptor on histaminergic and nonhistaminergic neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems, it is probably involved in control of neurogenic inflammation through mast cell feedback loops. All 4 types of histamine receptors are heptahelical transmembrane molecules that transduce extracellular signals, by way of G-proteins, to intracellular second messenger systems.

The active and inactive states of these receptors exist in equilibrium; at rest, the inactive state isomerizes with the active state and vice versa [ receptor, either directly or indirectly through nuclear factor-κB, an ubiquitous transcription factor, through which they down-regulate antigen presentation, expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules, and chemotaxis.

In addition, through their effects on calcium ion channel activity, H antihistamines have been classified into 6 chemical groups: alkylamines, ethanolamines, ethylenediamines, phenothiazines, piperazines, and piperidines.

Currently, the most commonly used classification system is a functional one, in which H antihistamines are classified as either first-generation medications that readily cross the bloodbrain barrier and potentially sedate and impair cognitive and psychomotor function, or second-generation drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier to a minimal extent and are relatively nonsedating and nonimpairing[ *Acrivastine is related tripolidine.

Cetirizine is a metabolite of hydroxyzine, levocetirizine is an enantiomer of cetirizine, desloratadine is a metabolite of loratadine, and fexofenadine is a metabolite of terfenadine.

**In the United States, these H antihistamines azelastine, emedastine, epinastine, ketotifen, levocabastine, and olopatadine are available in ophthalmic formulations; and azelastine, dimethindene, levocabastine, and olopatadine are available in intranasal formulations.

Please or register to post comments
If spammers comment on your content, only you can see and manage such comments Delete all
Our hospital experienced seven instances of newborns falling over a 7-month period. Until that time, there had been no reported newborn falls. We formed a committee. 
27-Nov-2018 12:19
Reply
Newborns will be taken care of by the neonatology group. which works well—but it’s sedating and only lasts six hours. It’s better to use a more-modern. 
27-Nov-2018 12:24
Reply
Breastfeeding in particular seems to be a powerful painkiller, stress reducer, and infant sleep aid. When newborns were subjected to a painful medical procedure. 
27-Nov-2018 12:28
Reply

Sedating newborns introduction

Sedating newborns

Recent posts

27-Nov-2018 18:02
27-Nov-2018 21:37
28-Nov-2018 04:44